Intermodal Marketing Company (IMC) - (Definition, Purpose & Value)
We speak with hundreds of shippers a year looking for ways to improve their supply chain, whether that be cost, performance or additional capacity. At some point in the conversation intermodal comes into play.
A topic within the intermodal discussion is the intermodal marketing company and the value they bring.
Definition of an Intermodal Marketing Company (IMC)
An IMC purchases rail intermodal service direct from the Class I railroads, along with truck transportation services fromdray providers, utilize intermodal equipment from multiple sources and provides other value-added services under a single freight bill to the ultimate shipper (BCO - beneficial cargo owner).
You are not alone if the above definition confused you more because there are many shippers confused on the subject topic of an IMC.
From a historical perspective, IMC's were created as a by-product of the railroads' decision, during the development of the intermodal service, that they would not sell intermodal service to the retail shipper market or as some call them, beneficial cargo owners (BCO).
Instead, railroads wanted to sell wholesale to companies that would perform the sales and marketing for their intermodal service, so they could focus their resources and captal to what they are best at ... operating a railroad.
Intermodal Marketing Company (IMC)
IMC's provide not only sales, marketing and pricing, but also:
- Secure container and/or dray capacity.
- Provide a layer of customer service support and reporting shippers are accustom to receiving from their other transportation mode purchases.
- Give shippers one call access to the West and East Coast railroads, since there is no one railroad that covers all the North American intermodal ramps.
There are various types of intermodal marketing companies: asset, asset light and non-asset.
Don't be fooled. Brokers that do not purchase rail service direct from the railroads are not IMC's.
(To learn more about the different classes of IMC's read Defining Asset & Non-Asset Intermodal Providers - Advantages of Both.
During the mid-2000's railroads developed and focused resources on their door-to-door intermodal service for IMC market. This stratgice move put a new and better twist on IMC's, for those that has taken the door-to-door model to another level of service for the intermodal buyer.
Prior to the door-to-door intermodal service model all IMC' would secure containers, utilize ramp-to-ramp rail pricing and add in their dray capacity.
The ramp-to-ramp provided the layer of service between the railroad and shipper that allows for a one- stop shop for a shipper to access the entire North American intermodal network, as is now provided with the newer door-to-door intermodal model.
Both models provides sales, marketing, operations and pricing, but each with a little different twist.
To help work through the differences between the old model IMC and the newer door-to-door model, we will walk through the differences found in the areas of customer support, capital allocation and areas of focus.
Old IMC Model: Customers typically have a single customer service rep / dispatcher, with nights and weekends covered on a 1-800 number. The dispatcher is responsible for obtaining the equipment, managing the dray segments, handling the interchange at the intermodal ramps and all communications with the customer.
New Door-to-Door Model: Under this model, the IMC is customer service extraordinaire with their entire focus on reporting, communicating and following the shipment from origin to destination. The IMC is a second set of eyes on the shipment and will step in with communication to the railroad if they see a hiccup in transit. The reason the IMC in this model does not have any other responsibility is the door-to-door railroad division is obtaining the equipment; managing the dray work; and handles the interchange at the intermodal ramps.
Just think what that means for service. The railroads leverage the total dray purchase they have with the dray community across all their intermodal volume to get the best price and service and the interchange is managed by the railroads who own the ramps. While the railroads are doing the heavy lifting, the IMC is backing up the railroad work with communication to the customer; looking to ensure the shipment is tracking through the network properly; and supplying all the customized reports the customer desires. This is significantly better in the customer has a team of individuals from two organizations servicing each shipment for them versus the old model where one dispatcher has to do it all on each load.
Allocation of Capital
Old IMC Model: The IMC has to allocate its capital to enhance all areas of sales, customer service, equipment, ops, finance, technology, etc.
New Door-to-Door Model: Under the door-to-door model, the railroad allocates their dollars on the operations and equipment to improvements the infrastructure and the velocity through it, while the IMC allocates their dollars on the visibility through technology and the customer service through competent and capable people.
Area of Focus
Old IMC Model: These IMCs are laser focused on street turns and in doing so put the majority of their focus on people to manage equipment, which can take the eye off managing the customer's best interest.
New Door-to-Door Model: The new IMC model leaves the equipment management to the railroads, which then puts IMC resources into the technology and people to best service the customer.
The change brought about by the introduction of the door-to-door IMC model has been and continues to be a huge win for shippers considering intermodal because the concerns over service are being addressed through the new model in such a way that is essentially putting customer service on "intermodal steroids". An aspect of this model for shippers that have been going through IMC's under the older model is you do have the opportunity to communicate directly with the IMC and railroad on occasion for the bigger projects.
Another great resource to find out more about the intermodal market, visit the Intermodal Association of North America website. IANA is North America's leading industry trade association representing the combined interests of the intermodal freight industry. Also, for more on the topic Intermodal Marketing Companies (IMC's) for Beginners is a quick read for more information on the topic.